Tuesday, June 29, 2010

Taking a Break

I have run into a time crunch and will not resume posting until sometime in mid-July.

Best wishes for a wonderful summer.

Fourth of July photo from www.flickr.com/photos/yourdon/3689828045/.

Monday, June 28, 2010

The Elizabeth Ann Pugsley Hayward Virtual Scrapbook

Over the next few months, I will be posting a collection of materials about the life and career of Elizabeth Ann Pugsley Hayward. These materials will include photos, newspaper clippings, articles she wrote, information about her family and the people she worked with, information about the national political conventions she attended, information on legislation she sponsored or supported, and so forth. With these materials, I will be developing a time line of her life and at the end of posting everything will write a short Wikipedia entry about her life and career.

If anyone has any original materials about her life that I may not have seen, it would be great to see scans of photos or other materials that I could add to the collection for the benefit of all of her descendants. Genealogical scans should be generally be 300 dpi and I can use all the common formats (jpg, tiff, etc.). Toni has already sent a number of items that I will be posting, but different branches of the family may have additional materials. If you send me an email at the address on the right sidebar I can let you know what I do and do not have. Thanks!

Friday, June 25, 2010

Guest Post: The Big Table

After reading a post on Keepapitchinin: The Mormon History Blog yesterday about a sketch for a United Order community, I wrote a guest post on the experience of the Little Colorado Settlers with the United Order and, in particular, the communal meals.

You can read it here.

The Tanner ancestors involved with these settlements were Henry and Eliza Tanner (Joseph City) and Ove Oveson and his family (Brigham City).

Tuesday, June 22, 2010

You Have Mail...

Gammon Hayward and many other fine citizens of Salt Lake City neglected to call at the post office in 1853 to collect their mail. Perhaps you will recognize a name or two on this list.

Thanks, Toni, for sending this!

Monday, June 21, 2010

The Cripps Family Emigrates

Charles and Elizabeth Cripps emigrated to Utah in 1863 and 1861. Five of their children died at a young age and were buried in England. Four of their children emigrated to Utah (although it's not clear whether Frederick stayed there). Four of their children stayed in England, but at least one of them visited Utah many years later.

Here are some notes about each family member.

Father: Charles Cripps (1863)
Ship: Amazon
Wagon Company: unidentified

Charles Cripps' entry in the Pioneer Overland Trail database says that, "Evidence from emigration and church (Perpetual Emigrating Fund) records proves he traveled to Utah in 1863."

His biography by Ida Thayle Cripps DeWitt Smith says:
It was yet two years before Charles could get enough money to join [his family] in America. He sailed on the ship Amazon a capacity of 1600 tons, 4 June 1863, and arrived in New York City 18 July 1863. Destination: Florence, Nebraska. The ship was a church-chartered vessel sailed by Mr. Hovey, Capt. There were 882 persons aboard. William Bramall was president of the company. Charles was 68 years old. He was issued ticket #96 and he used 420 (some form of currency) from London account of the church’s emigration fund. The group he was with were from “Coventry.”

Charles Dickens, the great English novelist, was on that ship, the Amazon. Dickens described the ship at Liverpool Harbor, England. “A Mormon emigrant ship with more than 800 Mormon converts…in their degree, the pick and flower of England” and concluded with these comments:

What is in store for this poor people on the shores of the Great Salt Lake, what happy delusions they are laboring under now, on what miserable blindness their eyes may be opened then, I do not pretend to say. But I went aboard their ship to bear testimony against them if they deserved it, as I believed they would; to my great astonishment they did not deserve it; and my predispositions and tendencies must not affect me as an honest witness. I went over the Amazon’s side, feeling it impossible to deny that, so far, some remarkable influence had produced a remarkable result, which better known influences have often missed.
Here is another biography of Charles Cripps. Here is an article about the sailing of the Amazon.

Mother: Elizabeth Baker Cripps (1861)
Wagon Company: unidentified
Traveled with: daughter Emma Hodges and her family

Here is what her biography says about her trip:
She left from Liverpool, England, on April 8, 1861 at the age of 60 on the ship the "Underwriter" with her daughter Emma Godbe Cripps Hodges, her husband William Augustus Hodges and their oldest son. She left her husband Charles behind. It would be two long years later until she would be reunited with him in Utah.

Elizabeth was skilled as a nurse. This was a profession that the pioneers were thankful for many times. She was the nurse who delivered her daughter's baby in the wilderness outside Florence, Nebraska in July of 1861. The baby was named Florence because they were approaching Florence, Nebraska where they were to meet the wagons on the "Down and Back" teams from Salt Lake.

The trip to Keokuk, Iowa, was a very difficult journey for them. They had no wagon team so day by day; they walked by the side of someone else's wagon. Elizabeth had a vase that meant very much to her. It was her only possession from England. She refused to leave it behind. As a result, she carried this vase in the folds of her apron as she walked along with her pregnant daughter, Emma. The wagon master had told them that each person could only bring 20 pounds. This consisted only of food and clothing.

Child #1: Elizabeth Mary Cripps Spicer (1856)
Born: 7 May 1826
Died: 25 April 1898

Ship: Horizon
Wagon Company: Dan Jones/John A. Hunt
Traveled with: husband William Spicer

Their wagon company entered the Salt Lake Valley several weeks after the Martin and Willie Handcart Pioneers. Here is Elizabeth's obituary.

Child #2: Henry Charles Cripps
Born: 16 November 1827
Died: 9 Dec 1827

Died as an infant.

Child #3: Caroline Cripps Billings
Born: 6 April 1829
Died: after 1910

Remained in England with her husband, Henry Billings, and five children.

Child #4: Sarah Ann Cripps Hayward (1853)
Born: 1 August 1830
Died: 15 February 1932

Wagon Company: Jacob Gates
Traveled with: husband Gammon, daughter Sarah, and son Henry

Here is Sarah Ann Hayward's biography.

Child #5: Frederick George Cripps (1880)
Born: 11 April 1832
Died: 21 July 1916

Ship: Wisconsin
Traveled with: his five children, Ada (11), Charles (8), Henry (5), Frederick (3), and Alice (infant). 

Frederick's wife, Eliza Hamblin, died about 1879, so Frederick was taking his children to be raised by his elderly mother in Utah. The youngest was an infant. That must have been quite a trip across the ocean! Ada shows up in the genealogy as Ada Cripps Spicer, married to Daniel Spencer Wallace, so she was probably adopted by her aunt Elizabeth Spicer.

Child #6: Eliza Jane Cripps
Born: 26 July 1833
Died: 10 May 1935
Did not emigrate. I have no record of a marriage. This daughter is not listed in the 1841 census although she would have been seven or eight years old at the time, and she is also not listed in the 1851 census.

Child #7: John William Cripps
Born: 17 December 1834
Died: 27 February 1917

Stayed in England. Married to Mary Jane Woodward. They had 12 children. His great-granddaughter Ida Smith wrote a biography of Charles Cripps which I quote above in the section about Charles Cripps. She notes that John Cripps visited Utah, and his grandson Percy Charles Cripps moved to America.

Here is the record of John's 1898 Utah visit.

And here is Percy's Declaration of Intention to become a U.S. citizen. Note the statement that he had to sign.

I also recently received a kind email from one of John's great-great-great grandsons, who lives in England. It's wonderful to think that there is still some contact between different branches of the Cripps family, 149 years after Elizabeth left England. Their family was very important to Charles and Elizabeth, and I imagine they would be pleased.

Child #8: Ellen Cripps
Born: 9 April 1835
Died: as a child

The name of this child is from the family records. There is no record of her in New Family Search. Should she be added? Does anyone have a source for her birth?

Child #9: Daughter
Born: 9 May 1836
Died: stillborn

Child #10: James Alfred Cripps
Born: 13 April 1837
Died: 30 August 1846

Child #11: Emma Goadbey Cripps Hodges (1861)
Born: 1 February 1839
Died: 14 February 1924

Wagon Company: unindentified
Traveled with: mother Elizabeth, husband William Hodges, son William (2), and starting in Nebraska, her newborn daughter Florence.

Child #12: Stephen Baker Cripps
Born: 9 May 1840
Died: 4 August 1881

Stayed in England. Married to Ann Dredge George. I don't have a record of any children.

Child #13: Donald Edwin Cripps
Born: 4 October 1844
Died: 1845

Coming soon ...  census records about the Cripps family

Friday, June 18, 2010

Elizabeth Cripps Spicer

Elizabeth Cripps Spicer was the oldest child in the Cripps family. Her obituary notes that she emigrated in 1856, five years earlier than her mother.

From the Deseret News, May 14, 1898.

Thank you for sending this obituary, Toni!

Monday, June 14, 2010

Wessman 27: Elizabeth Baker Cripps

Birth date: 5 February 1801 Exton, Rutland, England
Died: 8 March 1891 Salt Lake City, Utah
Parents: Henry Baker and Mary Turner Baker

Spouse: Charles Cripps (a ropemaker)
Born: 17 May 1795 Coventry, Warwickshire, England
Died: 1 June 1870 Salt Lake City, Utah
Married: 13 Nov 1825 St. Giles, Camberwell, Surrey, England

The life of Elizabeth is a history of decisions. Elizabeth felt that christening of children was important. Because of this, she had her children christened at St. Mary, Rotherhithe, Surrey, England. Elizabeth and her family moved to Bermondsey, Surrey, England when their last child Donald Edwin Cripps died at about the age of one.

In 1850, she listened to the missionaries of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Soon she, her husband (Charles), and two of her daughters Sarah Ann and husband, then Elizabeth Mary and husband, were converted and baptized. Elizabeth was baptized in the "Old Kent Road" branch March 25, 1850. Her daughter Sarah Ann Cripps Hayward, Gammon Hayward, Caroline Cripps Billings and Henry Billings, after their baptism went to America in 1851 and 1853 with their children.

In 1851, the census of England showed that Elizabeth was living at #1 Silver Street, Rotherhithe, Surrey, England with her husband.

Elizabeth decided to leave England and follow her daughters and other members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints to America. She wanted to come to a more productive country and leave the rampant poverty. She had also had five children die (Henry, Ellen, a stillbirth daughter, James and Donald) there.

She left from Liverpool, England, on April 8, 1861 at the age of 60 on the ship the "Underwriter" with her daughter Emma Godbe Cripps Hodges, her husband William Augustus Hodges and their oldest son. She left her husband Charles behind. It would be two long years later until she would be reunited with him in Utah.

Elizabeth was skilled as a nurse. This was a profession that the pioneers were thankful for many times. She was the nurse who delivered her daughter's baby in the wilderness outside Florence, Nebraska in July of 1861. The baby was named Florence because they were approaching Florence, Nebraska where they were to meet the wagons on the "Down and Back" teams from Salt Lake.

The trip to Keokuk, Iowa, was a very difficult journey for them. They had no wagon team so day by day; they walked by the side of someone else's wagon. Elizabeth had a vase that meant very much to her. It was her only possession from England. She refused to leave it behind. As a result, she carried this vase in the folds of her apron as she walked along with her pregnant daughter, Emma. The wagon master had told them that each person could only bring 20 pounds. This consisted only of food and clothing.

In 1860, Abraham Lincoln had been elected president. This election started a chain of events that would affect emigration to Utah. When the Civil War started, the Saints that were emigrating wondered if the war would block ships that were coming from Europe. Wagons and teams were difficult to get. Most of the Saints were too poor to buy their own wagons and teams. The church did not have the funds either, even if wagons were available.

It was in 1861 that emigration started using the "Down and Back" wagon trains for the hundreds of saints who were coming. On April 23, 1861 (the day after the news arrived that Fort Sumter fell), 200 wagons and 1700 oxen left for Florence from Salt Lake. Every ward in Utah donated a fully outfitted wagon and a yoke of oxen.

In England, while all this was going on in America, George Q. Cannon chartered three ships at Liverpool. One of the ships was the "Underwriter." He filled the ships with supplies, appointed L.D.S. officers for each ship and supervised the emigrants boarding and their departures. Elizabeth spent three weeks on a bumpy ride across England to get on the "Underwriter."

Three thousand saints (including Elizabeth) on the three boats arrived in New York. They were funneled into harbor barges that eventually took them to the Jersey City depot. They went Northwest to Dunkirk, New York by train and went west along Lake Erie to Chicago. From there, they traveled on the Mississippi River to Quincy, Illinois. Nauvoo (which was now deserted) was fifty miles south. Elizabeth said that it was [in] Keokuk, Iowa, that they stayed. When Elizabeth left Jersey City, she saw first hand part of the Civil War that was going on. Troops were guarding a cannon that had been captured from Secessionists. She learned that a rebel officer had been imprisoned in the train depot. Nearly every town and bridge they passed had a guard.

In Missouri, business was stopped and men that were armed patrolled the streets. The city itself gave the aura of being a captured city. Due to the war curtailing the Missouri river traffic, it forced the emigrants to overload the steamboats. No trains were running. If Elizabeth [had] been even one month behind schedule, she would not have reached Florence, Nebraska, in time to meet the wagons. Elizabeth stayed in a camp with a bowery that the Saints had set up for May, June, and July until the wagons came to take them to the Salt Lake valley. After arrival in the Great Salt Lake Valley, Elizabeth lived mostly in the homes of her daughters. She lived in the 16th Ward ... on 6th West between First and Second North. She lived for a while also in San Francisco.

[Her husband Charles Cripps emigrated to Utah in 1863 on the ship Amazon. Elizabeth was listed in the passenger records two years earlier as "widow." Perhaps she didn't know if Charles was planning to come to America.]

Her son Frederick George Cripps and his five children (Ada, George Charles, Henry, Frederick and Alice) came on the ship "Wisconsin," on June 5, 1880. Frederick's wife died in 1878 with their last child in childbirth in England, so he brought his children over so that Elizabeth could raise them. Elizabeth at this time was 79 years old and had been a widow approximately ten years. She was a woman of exceptional strength to raise her large family, then in her later years, raise five more.

She had a motto that said, "IF YOU CAN DO...YOU MUST DO...AND SHOULD DO." Some examples of Elizabeth following this motto in her life was when she helped others with her nursing skills, gained a stronger testimony of Jesus Christ and joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. She also crossed the ocean, plains, mountains and rivers, going on with life while grieving the death of her children and husband, and then raising five grandchildren in her later life.

Elizabeth died 8 March 1891 and is buried ... next to her husband Charles in Salt Lake City, Utah.

Children of Charles and Elizabeth Baker Cripps

1. Elizabeth Mary Cripps
Born: 7 May 1826
Married: William Spicer
Died: 25 April 1898

2. Henry Charles Cripps
Born: 16 Nov. 1827
Died: 9 Dec. 1827

3. Caroline Cripps
Born: 6 April 1829
Married: Henry Billings

4. Sarah Ann Cripps
Born: 1 August 1830
Married: Gammon Hayward
Died: 15 February 1932

5. Frederick Cripps
Born: 11 April 1832
Married: Mary Ann Eliz. Hamblin
Died: 21 July 1916

6. Eliza Jane Cripps
Born: 26 July 1833
Died: 10 May 1935

7. John William Cripps
Born: 17 December 1834
Married: Mary Jane Woodward
Died: 27 February 1917

8. Ellen Cripps
Born: 9 April 1835
Died: as a child

9. Daughter Cripps
Born: 9 May 1836
Died: stillbirth

10. James Alfred Cripps
Born: 13 April 1837
Died: 30 August 1846

11. Emma Godby Cripps
Born: 1 February 1839
Married: William Augustus Hodges
Died: 14 February 1924

12. Stephen Baker Cripps
Born: 9 May 1840
Married: Ann Dredge George
Died: 4 August 1881

13. Donald Edwin Cripps
Born: 4 October 1844
Died: 1845 

Many thanks to Toni for sending this history by an unidentified author.

Photo of flowers on a vase from www.flickr.com/photos/nicmcphee/29238021/. Photo of the sunset over Rotherhithe, England, from www.flickr.com/photos/45375656@N00/802460787/. Photo of the prairie outside Keokuk, Iowa, from www.flickr.com/photos/davidburn/2885269649/. Photo of the Indian Paintbrush (Castilleja rhexifolia) in Albion Basin, Utah, from www.flickr.com/photos/ironrodart/3777934592/.

Friday, June 11, 2010

Generations 4 and 5 of the Wessman Family

Johan Wessman's parents Bengt Persson and Marit Olofsdotter are mentioned in the history of the Wessman family. (Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4 - Part 5)

I did not do research on the Hall family in Sweden, so I do not have any information on Anders Rasmusson Hall and Edla Maria Brun besides what is found in the genealogy.

Gammon Hayward and Sarah Ann Cripps Hayward

Here is a history of the Gammon Hayward. Here is a history of Sarah Cripps Hayward.

Here is a post describing the sources on the Hayward family.

Here is a post on the Perpetual Emigrating Fund inspired by the Hayward and Pugsley families.

Here is a post about the Mormon Migration site inspired by the Hayward family's immigration.

Philip Pugsley and Martha Roach Pugsley

Edward Tullidge published a biography of Philip Pugsley in his magazine. (Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4 - Part 5 - Part 6)

Here is a biography of Martha Pugsley.
Here is a biography of Philip's second wife, Clarissa Ames Pugsley.

Philip Pugsley died in 1903. Here are newspaper clippings about his obituary and funeral. Here are notes about the participants in his funeral.  Philip's will was fought over in court. Here is the case in the Utah Supreme Court. (Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4) Here are notes on the executors to his will.

Fifth Generation

I haven't posted anything separate on the fifth generation in any of these families. I do have some materials, but could use more if anyone has any sources.

Thursday, June 10, 2010

Generation 3 of the Wessman Family

Last week I did a survey of the information on this blog about Henry and Jean Hayward Wessman. Here is a summary of posts so far on their parents, Johan and Amanda Wessman and Henry and Elizabeth Hayward.

John or Johan Bengtsson Wessman

Johan Bengtsson was born in 1840 at Braseröd, Romelanda, Göteborgs-och-Bohus, Sweden. He later changed his surname to Wessman. His family called him "John" in the family records, so I use this name in Rootsweb and even here so that descendants can find this information by doing a google search. But his name was Johan and he used that name on a letter in 1895 and in his 1896 immigration, so that is what I call him and how I have him listed in my records.

Here is a series of five posts with all the information I know about the Wessman family in Sweden. (Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4 - Part 5) Part 4 includes a link to the current Wessman family genealogy on Rootsweb.

After his wife left for Utah, but before he was able to leave Sweden, Johan wrote a beautiful letter to Amanda. Someone transcribed the Swedish and then translated it into English for the Wessman family. (Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4)
Göteborg den 25 Jannuari 1895

Kära Älskade make samt mina små gossar ja äfven mina flickor
Johan left Sweden in November 1896 and arrived in New York in December 1896. The records about that trip are documented in the post Johan Bengtsson Wessman's Trip to America.

Amanda Matilda Hall Wessman

The posts about the Wessman family in Sweden also mention Johan's wife Amanda. Amanda Hall was born in 1848 in Tanum, Bohus, Sweden. Here is a collection of documents about her life.

Here is a short Andrew Jenson biography of Amanda Wessman.

Here is a lovely little article from the Relief Society Magazine about Amanda's temple work, "An Unknown Heroine."

Here are a few documents  about her death in 1931.

Henry John Hayward

Henry Hayward was born in London in 1852, right before his parents left England for Utah.

Here is a biography. Here are some photographs of Henry and his wife Elizabeth and three of their children.

Henry is mentioned several times in the collection of postcards from his daughter Jean's studies in Berlin and his subsequent trip to Europe with his sister and youngest daughter.

One of the best sources on the Hayward family is a book by Ida Wagstaff. It does not have much about Henry though.

Elizabeth Ann Pugsley Hayward

The least-covered so far of this generation is the one about which I have the most to say.

Elizabeth Ann Pugsley was born in 1854, not long after her parents immigrated to Utah from England. She married Henry Hayward in 1875. They had nine children. Six of their children died as infants or children. Elizabeth had a long career in public service.

I will start posting a history about her that I wrote in college and supplement it with various materials collected by my grandparents or sent to me by Wessman cousins.

Monday, June 7, 2010

The Curious Story of Jean Wessman's Citizenship

Jean Wessman was born in Salt Lake City, so why was she listed as an alien in the 1920 census?

This is the 1920 U.S. Census entry for the Wessman family: Henry, Jean, Merle, Harry, Richard, Paul, Jean, John, and Elizabeth.

The entries after their names are:
  • Relation to head of the family
  • Home owned or rented
  • If owned, free or mortgaged
  • Sex
  • Color or race
  • Age at last birthday
  • Single, married, widowed, or divorced
  • Year of immigration to the United States
  • Naturalized or alien
  • If naturalized, year of naturalization
Naturalize —
admit (a foreigner) to the citizenship of a country 
(Oxford American Dictionaries)

Henry's record shows that he was the head of the household, owned his home, had a mortgage, was male, white, 34, married, that he came to the United States in 1895 (probably incorrect). The last field is the most curious.

Henry's entry says "Pa." What does this mean?

The instructions for 1920 census takers are available online, and the document notes the  following instructions for filling in this box:
129. For a foreign-born male 21 years of age and over, or a foreign-born unmarried female of that age, write—
"Na" (for naturalized), if he, or she, has become a full citizen, either by taking out second or final papers of naturalization or, while he or she was under the age of 21 years, through the naturalization of either of the parents.
"Pa" (for papers), if he, or she, has declared intention to become an American citizen and has taken out "first papers."
"Al" (for alien), if he, or she, has taken no step toward becoming an American citizen. ("1920 Census: Instructions to Enumerators," IPUMS-USA, Minnesota Population Center, http://usa.ipums.org/usa/voliii/inst1920.shtml.)
So, according to this census record, Henry had declared his intent to become a citizen. Then, looking at the citizenship status field below his, Jean is listed as "Al," or alien. Why would Jean, who was born in Salt Lake City in 1887 show up in the census as a non-citizen of the United States? A reporting error? A recording error?

Here is the census instruction:
130. A married woman is to be reported with the same citizenship as her husband.
It seems that the census taker was following instructions when she recorded that Jean was an alien.

Were the census instructions accurate and legal?

The answer is complicated. Here is a long article on the topic of women and naturalization (Part 1 - Part 2). I will summarize a few key points.

With the exception of a few states including Utah, women did not have the right to vote before  the Nineteenth Amendment was passed in 1920. Unless a woman was single or widowed, she had few reasons to seek citizenship. In 1855, an act of Congress provided that "[a]ny woman who is now or may hereafter be married to a citizen of the United States, and who might herself be lawfully naturalized, shall be deemed a citizen." A woman's citizenship came automatically with her husband's citizenship.

For decades after 1855, courts found time after time that an alien wife of an alien husband could not establish citizenship for herself. But an alien woman who married a U.S. citizen automatically became a citizen, as did her minor children.
Just as alien women gained U.S. citizenship by marriage, U.S.-born women often gained foreign nationality (and thereby lost their U.S. citizenship) by marriage to a foreigner. As the law increasingly linked women's citizenship to that of their husbands, the courts frequently found that U.S. citizen women expatriated themselves by marriage to an alien. (Marian L. Smith, "Any Woman Who is Now or May Hereafter Be Married...", Women and Naturalization, ca. 1802-1940, U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, archives.gov.)

In 1906, Congress passed a naturalization act to standardize the process of immigration and naturalization. Congress required that all courts had to use standard forms including a declaration of intention, a petition for naturalization, and a certificate of naturalization. [1]

Not quite a year later, in 1907, Congress passed an act that stated that all women acquired their husband's nationality upon marriage.
This changed nothing for immigrant women, but U.S.-born citizen women could now lose their citizenship by any marriage to any alien. Most of these women subsequently regained their U.S. citizenship when their husbands naturalized. However, those who married Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, or other men racially ineligible to naturalize forfeited their U.S. citizenship. Similarly, many former U.S. citizen women found themselves married to men who were ineligible to citizenship for some other reason or who simply refused to naturalize. Because the courts held that a husband's nationality would always determine that of the wife, a married woman could not legally file for naturalization. (Women and Naturalization.)
When women were granted suffrage in 1920, a problem arose:
Given that women who derived citizenship through a husband's naturalization would now be able to vote, some judges refused to naturalize men whose wives did not meet eligibility requirements, including the ability to speak English. The additional examination of each applicant's wife delayed already crowded court dockets, and some men who were denied citizenship began to complain that it was unfair to let their wives' nationality interfere with their own.  (Women and Naturalization.)
In 1922, Congress passed the Cable (Married Women's Independent Nationality) Act. This act stated:
That the right of any woman to become a naturalized citizen of the United States shall not be denied or abridged because of her sex or because she is a married woman....
That a woman citizen of the United States shall not cease to be a citizen of the United States by reason of her marriage after the passage of this Act, unless she makes a formal renunciation of her citizenship before a court having jurisdiction over naturalization of aliens....
That a woman who, before the passage of this Act, has lost her United States citizenship by reason of her marriage to an alien eligible for citizenship, may be naturalized as provided by section 2 of this Act... [2]
How did this affect Jean in practical terms? Was she able to vote in national elections between 1920 and 1922? Was she able to get a passport? Did she know when she got married that according to the 1907 law she would lose her citizenship upon marriage? [3]

Henry Richard Emanuel Wessman and Hazel Jean Hayward were married on November 25, 1908, in Salt Lake City, Utah.

So, the census was right. Under then-current American law, Jean lost her U.S. citizenship when she married Henry Wessman, a Swedish citizen.

Several acts followed in subsequent decades which attempted to correct the problem. In 1936 an act allowed women whose marriages had ended in death or divorce, which would include Jean since Henry died in 1932, to regain citizenship by filing an application at court and taking an oath of allegiance. Women who married a non-citizen between 1907 and 1922 and were still married had to go through the complete naturalization process.

In 1940 Congress extended the application and oath of allegiance process to all women who had lost their citizenship between 1907 and 1922. [4]

A final question remains. Was the law removing citizenship from these women constitutional? Before and after the Civil War, certain questions arose regarding citizenship, and in 1868 the United States ratified the 14th Amendment to the Constitution, which begins:
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
The Amendment states, "All persons born or naturalized in the United States... are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside."

Despite this Amendment, Congress does have the power to make certain adjustments to or restrictions on citizenship. Although there is a chance that a provision like this might have been seen as constitutional by the Supreme Court at the time, there is little chance that such a law would be found constitutional now.

[1] If Henry had declared his intention to become a citizen, he would have filled in extensive data including details on his entry into the country. Are these records available anywhere? In a Utah court? Duplicate papers were to be sent to Washington D.C. Are these papers available somewhere? They are not available through ancestry.com.

[2] The Cable Act also provided, "That any woman citizen who marries an alien ineligible to citizenship shall cease to be a citizen of the United States." This was evidently an effort to prevent American women from marrying Asian men, who were not eligible to become citizens. This unfortunate provision was not repealed until the 1930s.

[3] I cannot find any such records for Jean Wessman. Before she married, she spent a year in Europe and Germany. Here is her passport application, "Form For Native Citizen."

[5] This has been a particularly long and technical post. Anyone who has read all the way through to the conclusion and footnotes deserves a prize. Email me at the address on the sidebar, and explain your relationship to the Wessmans (if any) and I'll send you a pdf certificate granting you a distinguished award of some sort. :)

Friday, June 4, 2010

Henry Wessman and His Citizenship

A couple of days ago  I happened to glance at Henry Wessman's World War I Draft Registry Card (September 1918) and saw that he was listed as a "Alien—Declarant" with citizenship listed as "Sweden."
When did Henry come to the United States? Did he ever become a citizen?

After looking at many records, the answers to these two questions are "We don't know," and "Probably not."

Family Records

Here is what Henry's wife Jean said about her husband's immigration.
His mother Amanda Hall had become a convert to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, so other members of the family were also baptized into that church. The two older sisters Fanny and Bertha came to the United States when they were about 15 years of age with other members of the church as converts and went to work as maids in homes of church members when they reached Salt Lake City. When Henry was eight years of age [1893] he and his brother, [John] Herbert, came to Utah with other converts to the church. His sisters took care of him and Herbert until the mother arrived later [1893].

As they were all anxious about the husband and father who was in Sweden it was necessary for them to work to earn money to help him earn passage money. Life was hard for them as their younger brother Joseph was only five years of age when he came with his mother. Later the father came over...
Was Jean's account accurate? Let's look at the immigration records.

Immigration Records

Here is Amanda Wessman's Ellis Island immigration record. It shows Amanda and her son Joseph arriving in New York in 1893 on the ship Alaska.

Here is Johan Wessman's Ellis Island immigration record. He is listed on the next-to-the-last line as Johan Westman. He arrived in New York in 1896 on the ship Circassia.

I have not been able to find the immigration records for Fanny, Bertha, Henry, or Herbert under any possible combination of names. They do not show up in the Ellis Island records, on Ancestry, or in the Mormon Migration database.

Draft Registration

As shown above, Henry registered for the draft in 1918. He was listed as an alien with citizenship in Sweden.

Citizenship Records

I cannot find any naturalization (citizenship) records for Henry.

Census Records


Lines 60-63 show Amanda, John Herbert, Henry, and Joseph Wessman. Johan had died in two years earlier.

Here's a close-up of the immigration information. The three columns show the year of immigration to the United States, number of years in the United States, and naturalization status. The census shows that John Herbert immigrated in 1890 and had been in the United States for ten years. It shows that the other three came in 1893 and had been in the United States for 6-1/2 7 years.

Fanny's census record shows that she had been in the United States since 1873, the year of her birth. This is not correct. Bertha's census record shows that she had been in the United States since 1891.


No immigration or citizenship information is recorded in Henry or Amanda or Joseph's citizenship entries. Fanny's entry shows that she came in 1888 and was naturalized. Bertha's entry shows that she came in 1890. John Herbert's entry shows that he came in 1893 and was an alien.


Amanda's entry shows that she came in 1894 and is an alien. Bertha's entry shows that she came in 1891 and was a naturalized citizen. John Herbert's entry shows that he came in 1893 and was an alien. Henry's entry records that he came in 1893 and had declared his intent to become a citizen. Joseph's entry shows that he came in 1895 and had declared his intent to become a citizen.


The 1930 census shows Amanda living with her daughter Bertha Olsen.  Amanda is listed as an alien, coming in 1892. Bertha is listed as coming in 1890 and naturalized. John Herbert does not have any immigration information listed. Henry is listed as coming in 1893 and has declared his intent to become a citizen. Joseph is listed as coming in 1894 and is naturalized.

The Bottom Line

Amanda came in 1893. The census reports that she came in 1893, 1894, and 1892. She was never naturalized.

Fanny came in ?. The census reports that she came in 1873 or 1888.

Bertha came in ?. The census reports that she came in 1891, 1890, 1891, and 1890. According to the census, she became a citizen.

John Herbert came in ?. The census reports that he came in 1890, 1893, and 1893. He was not a citizen in 1920 and the information is not noted in 1930.

Henry came in ?. Three different censuses report that he came in 1893.

Joseph came in 1893. The census reports that he came in 1893, 1895, and 1894. He became a citizen.

Unless someone is able to find any additional information, we may never know exactly when and how Henry came to the United States and if he ever became a citizen.

Thursday, June 3, 2010

Generations 1 and 2 of the Wessman Family

Now that we're done with Toni's wonderful histories of Henry and Jean Hayward Wessman, it might be a good time to step back and review the topics that have been covered so far this year.

I have not done too much with the history first generation in this family, represented on this chart by John. But it would be wonderful to collect histories of each of the 14 children of Henry and Jean Hayward Wessman. An autobiography would be the best source. If one does not exist, a format like Toni used would be great, consisting of recollections from the children. These biographies would be collected and distributed straight to family members, and not collected on the blog, since they potentially include personal information about living people.

We have just finished the life story of Henry Wessman (Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4 - Part 5 - Part 6 - Part 7 - Part 8 - Part 9 - Part 10) and Jean Wessman (Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4 (this is the post with some of the favorite songs from the Wessman home) - Part 5 - Part 6 - Part 7 - Part 8).

Earlier in the year Toni sent a collection of Jean's postcards from Germany.

To start the year I posted a history of Henry and two of Jean (Autobiography and "Our  Organist").

A post with some pictures of the Wessman family got a lot of comments. Anytime I post a picture, please feel free to identify the people or share memories of them!

Another post included some newspaper clippings about the World War II service of seven of Jean's sons.

Here is a post with some photos from Jean's funeral.

Update: Henry immigrated to Utah from Sweden as a child. A post covered his immigration and citizenship. (He probably never became a citizen.) Additionally, due to a curious law in effect from 1907 to 1922, Jean lost her citizenship when she married Henry in 1908.

To be continued with a review of the next generation...

Wednesday, June 2, 2010

Henry Richard Emanuel Wessman: A Biography, Part 10

In World War I, Henry tried to join the army. He went running down to the recruiting station with his saber in hand. When they found out how old he was and the size of his family, they told him "Mr. Wessman, you take that saber back home and raise your family." Jean's first memory of her father Henry is that of being on his shoulders. They were watching the "Coming Home" parade for those that fought in World War I.

Henry had a hernia that bothered him for many years. He suffered from ulcers later on. His wife made him eggnog to take to work hoping that it would help in someway. When Henry got sick with ulcer complications the last time, he was living on 36th Street in Ogden. A couple of doctors were called for consultation. He had not been feeling well for a couple of days. It was decided to take him to the hospital. The condition was far too advanced to save him. It was very difficult for Jean to watch her husband suffer and she could not do anything to help him. She did not like him being in pain. He went to the hospital on a Sunday and died the following week on Sunday. It was basically ulcer complications that caused his death. He died of peritonitis.

Dick had been away from home a couple of years working and he had just got home right before his father died. Henry talked to Dick, Harry and his wife Jean at the hospital. He told Jean that he could not go through this illness again. He told them that they would have to pull together and scrape together a living. He knew that he was dying. He had been through something similar years earlier and he almost died then. He was 13 years old and had appendicitis. The operation was performed on the kitchen table. He developed peritonitis during this period.

After talking, the family members left the room for a short while. Joe Wessman was in Salt Lake and wanted to come and see his brother. However, he could not leave his business unattended. Therefore, Dick went to take care of the business so Joe could go. That was when Henry died. It was a painful death. There were no antibiotics or painkillers as they do now. It is very sad that he died at such a young age. He had great influence on all who knew him whether personally, professionally or even casually.

Elizabeth Hayward was at her daughter’s home helping out when the phone call came that Henry had died. She picked up the phone and said, "Yes...I am her mother...Thank you doctor...I am sorry." She then broke the news to the family members that were there. Not everyone was home. Jean started to cry. She of course had been up there earlier to see her beloved.

Ernie remembers the death coming as a surprise. Jean (the daughter) after hearing about the death went into the bathroom and cried. She does not remember much else about that day. There was silence around the house. The widow did very well coping with the death considering she had 14 children to care for. However, Jean was in tears most of the time. The kids took many by surprise. The kids did most of the housework as they did anyway after the death. The older kids went out to work to help. Henry left an insurance policy that was paid monthly that lasted about two years. That was very helpful to Jean.

Henry's funeral was big. Jean played some music at her husband’s funeral. She played the songs that he especially liked. Liebestraum was one song. One of his friends from the newspapers came and gave a good talk. Bishop James Harbertsen talked. He was impressed with the fact that Henry was a man who always liked his family. He would drive by the house many times and see him playing ball with his sons. Harry's father in law supplied a car from his construction company so the family could go in it. The funeral was in Ogden but the burial was in Salt Lake.

Some of his younger children have no or few memories of their father. The older children have more memories. The memories of the children in general were that he was handsome, young, active, loving, feisty, affectionate, fun, spry and a musician. He was very much adored. Henry was a good provider who was law abiding, righteous, and loved his family along with everyone in general.

***A special thank you to the children of Henry for their time to tell their memories and information.

by Toni Wyeth

Tuesday, June 1, 2010

Henry Richard Emanuel Wessman: A Biography, Part 9

The younger as well as the older kids would love to play baseball with their dad. It was quite fun. There were enough kids in the family to get together a good size team. He was pretty patient. He used to enjoy showing off by throwing a softball. Not one kid could throw a ball higher than he could. It was so fun. Henry was somewhat athletic. He could play the games such as baseball etc. quite well. He could also slam pretty well. Those are great memories. He was a kid at heart.

They also had picnics. Everyone piled in. Sometimes, they would take along friends. The washtub would be full of lunch to take up the canyons or to a resort to go swimming. “We were all taught to swim while we were little.” The family had two cars. They would be loaded up and up the canyons they would go. Friends would come if there were room. They played baseball, hiked and took instruments and played songs. The family did not go away on big vacations because there were too many of them.

Henry expected certain things out of his children. One time, Keith tried to run away from church and he almost got home. The next thing that he knew, he heard the old Dodge tearing up the road. Henry never went over 45 miles per hour.... He came screeching up the road and spotted Keith. He got Keith right back in the car and took him back to church. Keith does not know how he found out he was gone.

Another time, Keith was attempting to cut school (the first time). Henry ran him down and took him right back. Keith did not try to cut school again until he was a senior.

Life was certainly not boring with so many children around. He never knew quite what to expect. There were illness and disease such as scarlet fever, chicken pox, whooping cough, measles, small pox etc. that were prevalent. Some of his family became sick by having these diseases. A quarantine sign with big black letters would be nailed to the front of the house.

Liz with children Julia and Rich

There was an irrigation pond that was called either Ellison or Beuss Pond. Some of the children snuck in when they were not supposed too. Liz almost drowned but she was saved. She was scared to death and would not go back into the water. A friend name Owen threw her back in so she would not have a fear of the water.

The whole bunch of kids made a deal that they would not tell what happened. Especially to their parents. They were afraid of the repercussions if the situation were known. Jean (the daughter) does not know who squealed but someone did. Imagine the surprise of Henry and his wife when they read in the newspaper that their daughter Liz almost drowned. A very interesting conversation must have followed...

Henry had his certain opinions about hair. He liked long, straight hair. He certainly did not like curly hair. Especially when it was not natural. When his daughter Jean came home and wanted to get a perm, he said "NO." Jean cried and cried. She used one of the oldest excuses in the book, which is "Everyone else does." Henry decided to let her have one. Jean loved it but Henry did not. He never said a word about it though.

Joe Wessman (his brother) also liked long straight hair. Anna and Jean decided to have their hair cut one day. Their spouses were very upset when they saw the new hairstyle. However, Jean did bring home her hair in one long braided piece. It was quite long.

Henry expected the children to live up to the rules of the home. He was the disciplinarian. Jean did not do it. She did not have to. All she would have to do is cry and the children did not like that. It could be heard "don't make mom cry." He did not allow the children to sass or talk back to his wife. If they did, they would incur his wrath.


The family spent evenings together. There was not as much distraction outside the home as there is now. The home environment was great due to their own entertainment. The family was very close. They learned to get along with those with whom they associated with.

In later years, the family still got together when possible and enjoyed each other’s company. They like playing games, reminiscing, etc. By now, there are spouses involved and it makes for more family memories. The children of Henry and Jean live in different places and are involved in different activities but there is still a close bond between the children.

To be continued...