Wednesday, November 24, 2010

Elizabeth Hayward Causes: Service Star Legion

After World War I drew to a close, a group of women in Baltimore formed an organization called the Service Star Legion. The organization was founded in 1919 to assist servicemen and their families, support the United States government, and lend their efforts to related projects such as veteran's hospitals.

In Salt Lake City, a group called the War Mothers, organized in 1918, merged with the Service Star Legion in 1920. Elizabeth Hayward's son John Ewing Hayward had served in the war, and she joined the Service Star Legion. She served as corresponding secretary, chaplain, and parliamentarian for the Chapter.

The Salt Lake Chapter created Memory Grove Park in Salt Lake City in the 1920s. I cannot find the entry in the Marriott Library catalog at the University of Utah, but I see this description of a collection in the library on a genealogy site in Pennsylvania (Tri-Counties Genealogy):
Service Star Legion, Salt Lake County Chapter Papers (Ms 222)

University of Utah Marriott Library, Manuscripts Division

The Service Star Legion, Salt Lake County Chapter Papers (1923-1975) holds material regarding the Salt Lake County Chapter, the Utah Division, and the national organization. Included are annual rosters for the Salt Lake County Chapter, a 1951 handbook, and three convention programs from the 1940s. Also present are histories of projects and programs. Papers from the Utah Division include a constitution, by-laws, articles of incorporation, and convention programs and minutes. There are also two programs from the Utah-Wyoming Division from the early 1930s. A constitution and convention programs for the national organization are included, as are brief histories of the organization, copies of the national magazine, The Service Star, and an autobiography by Cora Baker, a national charter member. News clippings from 1923 to 1968 provide information about the activities and people associated with the Service Star Legion. Two scrapbooks also hold news clippings, as well as photographs, reports and other items. The Service Star Legion was organized in Baltimore, Maryland in 1919. In Utah, the original group was known as the War Mothers (organized 1918) that affiliated with the Service Star Legion in 1920. The group's purpose was to bring comfort and aid to servicemen and their families, and to support the U.S. government. They pursued civic projects, such as assistance with veterans hospitals. The Salt Lake County Chapter, beginning in 1926, improved and supported Memory Grove Park. The organization planted trees honoring Utah's war dead and Memorial House is dedicated to their memory. A register is available. 
The Service Star Legion does not seem to exist any more, but two similar organizations exist today, Blue Star Mothers for mothers with a child in the armed services, and American Gold Star Mothers, for mothers with a son or daughter who died in the service.

Memory Grove Park, to the east of the Utah State Capitol Building

Photo of the ribbon from Wessman cousin Toni. Photos of Memory Grove Park from and

Tuesday, November 23, 2010

Elizabeth Hayward Causes: Ten Percent, Part 2

After searching in Google Books on the term "American history 'ten percent' progressive" and considering Elizabeth Hayward's Progressive ideals, and specifically her interest in protecting the rights of children as well as her strong support of President Woodrow Wilson, the most likely answer to my question about what her "10%" button meant is the following.

In 1919 President Woodrow Wilson signed the Child Labor Tax Law.
The Child Labor Tax Law is title No. XII of an act entitled 'An act to provide revenue and for other purposes,' approved February 24, 1919.... The heading of the title is 'Tax on Employment of Child Labor.' It begins with section 1200 and includes eight sections. Section 1200 is as follows:
    'Sec. 1200. That every person (other than a bona fide boys' or girls' canning club recognized by the agricultural department of a state and of the United States) operating (a) any mine or quarry situated in the United States in which children under the age of sixteen years have been employed or permitted to work during any portion of the taxable year; or (b) any mill, cannery, workshop, factory, or manufacturing establishment situated in the United States in which children under the age of fourteen years have been employed or permitted to work, or children between the ages of fourteen and sixteen have been employed or permitted to work more than eight hours in any day or more than six days in any week, or after the hour of seven o'clock post meridian, or before the hour of six o'clock ante meridian, during any portion of the taxable year, shall pay for each taxable year, in addition to all other taxes imposed by law, an excise tax equivalent to 10 per centum of the entire net profits received or accrued for such year from the sale or disposition of the product of such mine, quarry, mill, cannery, workship, factory, or manufacturing establishment.' (Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Co., 259 U.S. 20 (1922))
Basically, this act was an attempt to regulate and discourage child labor by instituting a ten percent tax on the net profits of business that employed children younger than fourteen or had them working more than eight hours a day, six days a week.

This tax was found unconstitutional in 1922 by the U.S. Supreme Court in the act quoted above, Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Company.

The photo is from Wikipedia and was taken by Lewis W. Hine in 1910. The subject is "Rose Biodo, 1216 Annan St., Philadelphia. 10 years old. Working 3 summers. Minds baby and carries berries, two pecks at a time. Whites Bog, Brown Mills, N.J. This is the fourth week of school and the people here expect to remain two weeks more. Witness E. F. Brown. Location: Browns Mills, New Jersey."

Elizabeth Hayward Causes: Ten Percent

This will be a short post, since I can't figure out what this means! Anyone know?

Monday, November 22, 2010

Elizabeth Hayward Causes: March of Dimes

The virus poliomyelitis, also known as polio or infantile paralysis, is highly contagious and can easily be spread from person to person. If the virus enters the bloodstream it can result in severe damage to the central nervous system and muscle weakness or paralysis. It usually affects children.

A series of widespread polio epidemics began in the early 20th century, resulting in great suffering throughout the United States. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt caught polio at the age of 39 and was severely crippled the rest of his life. In 1938, President Roosevelt established the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to defeat the polio epidemic. The history of that organization is one of the great medical stories of the 20th century.

The foundation began its effort with a radio campaign asking everyone in the country to contribute a dime to fight polio. The foundation's fundraisers were called The March of Dimes, and that name stuck to the entire organization. The March of Dimes funded the work of researchers Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin and many others in the development of the two successful polio vaccines.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt was remembered after his death in 1945 for his part in the eradication of polio by having his picture placed on the dime.

Along with many of her other efforts to benefit the healthy growth and development of children, Elizabeth Hayward was involved in the March of Dimes. This little button is one of the items from the collection of her political and social memorabilia.

Elizabeth's grandchildren grew up with  children who had suffered from polio. Her grandson John injured an ankle during a game of tag and remembered the following story:
One of my friends, Don Weaver, had suffered from polio and was completely incapacitated from the waist on down; he loaned me a pair of crutches that he had, so I could walk around with him—he on his leg braces and on his other crutches. This was during the summer when we liked to go swimming in one of the large irrigation ponds in the Burch Creek [Ogden] area. One day after I had shown some improvement from my ankle injury, we went to a pond with one of his brothers and with a couple of my brothers. I almost didn’t get there, because traveling for about a mile or a mile and one-half on crutches was a real chore—especially for me on crutches, but not for Don because he had been doing it for years and had tremendously strong arms and shoulders. Coming back after swimming in the cold irrigation pond was downhill and easier than going up...

Despite the race for a cure, one of Elizabeth's great-grandchildren caught polio in September 1954, just seven months before Dr. Jonas Salk announced that the polio vaccine was "safe, potent, and active." While the great-grandchild suffered a comparatively mild case, he still feels the effects of the disease many years later.

Although there is still no way to cure polio, the disease has been almost entirely eradicated throughout the world, and will continue to be more and more of a distant memory as long as vaccination efforts continue, thanks to the dimes and community efforts of many people like Elizabeth Hayward.

These images in this series were provided by Wessman cousin Toni. Thanks, Toni! The picture of FDR and the March of Dimes poster are from their respective Wikipedia entries. The newspaper clipping is from the Kane County Standard (September 16, 1949) and illustrates some of the changes in medical care during this period.

Thursday, November 18, 2010

Henry Overson's Missionary Journal: Other Contents

Besides yesterday's letter from Eva Overson (Tanner) to her father Henry Overson, the journal  contained a one peso note from 1967, twenty years after Henry died. Here it is, front and back:

And the back inside cover of the journal had some notes about the nine Overson children and a very short index to the contents of the journal:

Eva Margaret [Overson Tanner]     Died leaving 2 boys.
Henry Victor
Albert Nephi     Died a baby. [Three years old.]
Edgar Pratt
Henry [Harry] James
Evan Joseph
Ivan George     Died age 22.
Ross Wallace
Marion Peter

London     [page] 1
Luton        [page] 9

Wednesday, November 17, 2010

A letter from Eva Overson to her father Henry Overson

New Hall N.A.N.S. [Northern Arizona Normal School, now Northern Arizona University]

Mr Henry C Overson
St Johns

Box 162

Flagstaff, Arizona
July 8, 1917

Dear Daddy—

     Tomorrow is your birthday and I wish you many many happy returns of the day.

     I am just home from Sunday School we hold it in the Public school building.

     The summer rains have begun and it rains nearly every day just little showers all of a sudden like it always does in the mountains. we walked a little way out in the pines and gathered all kind of wild flowers.

     On the third there was a big parade the school being the biggest part, which was all the Fourth of July I saw as I stayed here all day and their dances were down town on the street.

     There were Indians here by the score, for the celebration, of several different tribes.

     There are about two hundred enrolled in school about seventeen boys, only. [This was three months after the United States declared war on Germany.] The rest old maids and girls, just enough to show there is such a thing they say over ninety have gone from here to the border.

     The other day I met Sr Bates [probably Sarah Wakefield Bates] who lived in Brigham City [Arizona] she said she remembered you boys and said to remember her to you and Grandpa and Grandma [Ove and Mary Overson]. She is here from Taylor (or somewhere over there) visiting her daughter [probably Mary Elizabeth Bates Smith Baldwin].

     The bell is ringing for dinner and the mail leaves now so will close so it will go out today.

     How are you all and what are you doing?

          Love to all


Photo of the old main building at NANS from Wikipedia.

Friday, November 12, 2010

Henry Overson Missionary Journal: May 5-8, 1895

Even meeting comenced at 630 with an attendence of about 35 the same number as composed the afternoon meeting
After Sing. Prayer By Bro Walker followed by Bro Holly who spoke nearly half an hour. when the President finished occupying the time prayer by myself. After which I met the folks again had another nice talk with the ___ Spokeses returned to 42 and about 11 retired.

Monday May 6th 95 Brnm [Birmingham].

Arose quite early after writing a few minutes Pres Patterson Bro Holly and I went to 36. where we met the Paks family. did a little work in the Garden then returned to 42. and after dinner Bro Pratterson and I took a walk down town And in the evening went to Spokeses where we met the family concisting of the Father, Mother, Son and four Daughters indeed a very nice family
We spent some time gazing over Photoes then Miss Anna and got to Brading a cord for a tidy. sat on the Sound which place we occupied for some time
About 1030 had a fine Supper.
and we all resumed our places in the pa^r^lour which we occupied for some time when the Young Ladies sang to us Which was some of the nicest in the Land. they being Lovely Singers. About 1240 we left after spending one of the most aggreeable and ^most^ pleasantist evening of my time. soon arriving at 42 And retired.

Tuesday May 7th 95 Birmingham.

Lovely Morning as usual arose about 720 spent some time in packing and writing then Pres Patterson and I went to the Station and Put some things into my trunk took a little stroll round the town. came to 42, where we remained until evening then went to Bro Satts Pres went on first and called for a nother Sister Bro Eldridg ^& I^ followed. met the folks Also Miss Nellie spent a very pleasant evening. and upon returning found my tickets and Money from London which I I had been waiting for for some time retired about 1130

Wednesday Morning arose early 640 wrote a couple of letters had Breakfast then went.

[That's the end of the journal.]

Thursday, November 11, 2010

Henry Overson Missionary Journal: May 3-5, 1895

[Boarding the train for Birmingham changed at] Bedford went on passing through Rugby and [?] arriving at Brnm [Birmingham] about 835 took tram for Handsworth then walked nearly two miles carrying my grip found ^no^ 42. About 950 and all the Brorthern being out walked the streets until eleven oclock when the old Gentlement in the shop next door let me in. where I spent the time reading the news until About 1230 when Pres Patterson and some of the other Brothren came in. had a short chat, and Pres Patterson and I went out where he had a Bed. engaged

Saturday May 4th 95 Birmingham

Arose early and after going to the office for Breakfast went out with Pres Patterson to see the sights of town passing some very fine buildings and streets went by the Town Hall to the Museum and Art Gallery where we spent some time thence to the market And about 330 Went to Brothers Pakses where we met the family also Miss Nellie who Accompanied us to the Batanical Gardens where we spent the afternoon and evening very pleasantly attend the Concert of the May Day fest. heard some fine singing. some splended Dancing by a number of small Girls who Braided the Pole and crowned the Queen. which was very nice they being so very nicely uniformed. Dressed

Returning and retiring at 42 about 11. Oc[lock].

Sunday May 5th 95 Brnm [Birmingham]

Arose quite early the weather being fine as it had been all the week. spent some time here then Pres Patterson Holey and Walker Whome I accompanied went out to hold a meeting on the St. Pres Patterson gave them a fine discourse to a few restless listeners. After which we went to Paskses for dinner. 12 Oclock attended priesthood meeting at the L.D.S. Chapel. which lasted until the afternoon meeting comenced
Bro Spokes presiding after singing and Prayer the Pres called Bro Walker to speak after which the sacrament was administered then he called the writer up, who spoke about 15 or twenty minutes. then the pres spoke a few minutes and dismissed by Pres Pat. thence back to Paks for tea.

1891 Birmingham map from Freepages on Rootsweb.

Wednesday, November 10, 2010

Henry Overson Missionary Journal: May 1-3, 1895

...went down through the town crossing over Ludgate Hill went up St Pauls       when I purchased some presents just near the Cathedral on up through the Cheapside to the Bank got some new money then Bus to the Angel. About 5 O clock with Bro [Henry Mills] D[inwoodey] went to No 19. by bus to Baker St walked along that to the Marble Arch thence through Hyde park on to Kensington St then finished our journey by Bus Spent the evening very pleasantly returning by underground railway about 11 Oclock

Thursday May 2nd 95. London.

Arose early fixed up ready for leaving about 230 in came the Sisters Crudgingtoms who spent a few minutes as we bid them Good Bye in Came a Couple of new Elders. [A. Saxey and Fred. W. Nicholls]                       they, the Pres[ident of the London Conference N. L. Morris,] Bro Dinwoodey and I went to the Express for dinner. After which Pres Morris[,] Dinwoodey and I got into a cab went to St Pancras Stat[ion] where I left for Luton they bid me Ta Ta and returned. I arrived at Luton after a very pleasant ride of an hour finding Miss Emery at 28. and in the evening Sist Hacking and Miss Jackson came in, after spending the evening very very nicely Minnie and I accompanied Sist Jackson Home. after which we took a little wander returning about bedtime

Luton, Bedfordshire, 30 miles north of London, in 1888.

Friday May 3rd 95 Luton.

Arose about 630 And Minnie and I went out for a Wander up the London Rd round and Back over the lawns The weather was just fine, the Country grand, and the Wander Lovely. Enjoyed it very much, indeed, returned had Breakfast and spent some time at the House 12. Oclock in came Miss Daisy who spent a short time and I accompanied her Home, and spent an hour with her. Bid her Good Bye and returned to 28. during my absence miss Rheoby Cheney had come in, had walked 7 miles and come a Shiling worth on the Train. just to bid me good Bye. And I was just ready to go but stayed a couple of minutes and missed my train so went back to 28 And spent a couple of hours 430 Minnie and her accompanied me to the Station where I bid them Good Bye Boarding the train for Birmingham changed at...

To be continued...
Map of Luton from Wikipedia.

Monday, November 8, 2010

Henry Overson Missionary Journal: April 27-May 1, 1895

Saturday April 27th 95 London.

Arose early and after Breakfast Bros Belliston[,] Park and I went out to see the sights of London Took Bus to Westminster went through the Houses of Parliment then Boat down the Thames to Greenwich. went through the ^Park to the^ Observetory then through the Picture Gallery saw the Costume Lord Nelson wore at trafalgar. thence train to London Bridge passing under the thames through the Subway. Went all through the Tower, and over Tower Hill walked to the Bank. thence Bus to the Angel. and on to 36. where I bid them Good Bye. And spent the evening at the office

now Sunday April 28th

Nice morning. Spent the day at 36 until 230. then attended Testimony Meeting Was invited to Bro Birds to dinner then 630 Meeting meeting again Bro Jarman and the Pres spoke to a full Hall including 5 strangers event to Birds again to spend the evening and had a very nice time.

Monday April 29th 95 London.

Arose ^woke^ about 7.30. And the pres went down for the mail brought my release. which was quite a shock. soon arose and began packing spent the whole day in that way in the evening bought a few things at the Arcade on Strand also on Strand Spent the evening packing

Tuesday April 30th 95.

Spent the morning writing Good Bye letters. in the after noon visited Crosses then Spent an hour or more at Bro Tifield's Biding them them Good Bye. went to Birds from where Sophia and I went to call on Sist Allen found all well stayed a few minutes then Bid them good Bye. returning to No 3. Rayley St again met Bro and Sister Bird and Alfred about 1130 left them all with tears in their eyes. Bidding them good By. returned to 36.

Wednesday May 1st 95 London.

Quite busy packing up. went to Crosses where I took dinner. bidding them Good Bye...

Friday, November 5, 2010

Henry Overson Missionary Journal: April 19-26, 1895

Friday April 19th 95 London.

Spent the fornoon at 36 after dinner Bro Wood and I went out to see the Primrose decoration at Lord Backonsfield Stat[ue] near the Abbey [April 19th was Primrose Day, the anniversary of the death of Former Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, Lord Beaconsfield; see here]. the country round jamed with people then walked up the river to Victoria Bridge, crossing which brought us into Battersea Park where we spent some time, proceeding on to Walham Green went to no 19 where we met Bro Ayes folks all feeling fine also Bro and Sist [H. M.] Dinwoodey and Mary Young. After spending the evening very pleasantly we took train for Kings X [Cross] and arived here 1125

A Primrose Day celebration in London about 20 years later beneath the statue of Lord Beaconsfield. In the foreground, an old lady is selling primroses to a soldier.

Saturday the 20th

After seeing Bro ^Wood^ to the Holborn Via Assisted Bro Dinwoodey with the Books and Stars [Stats?] until 9 A.M. took a very short walk and spent the evening at 36 all by myself.

Sunday April 21st 95 London.

Arose about 930 A.M. remained at the office until 230 when attended meeting. then had some Tea and 630 Meeting again[.] Bro Dinwoodey and the Pres spoke to a well filled Hall. I went to Birds for Supper.

Monday April 22nd 95 London.

Remained at 36 most all day. in the evening went to Sist Allens where I met Alfred and Sophia Singleton and the folks all feeling well. And spent a very pleasant evening returning in the rain.

Tuesday Arose quite early and About 1030 Elds Beliston [John Belliston] and Park came in from the Nottingham Conference And I accompanied them out to see some of the sights and they took me to the Olympia in the evening. Came back by Hyde Park & Piccadilly.

Wednesday April 24th 95.

Storming nearly all day I spent the time there Writing.

Thursday April 25th 95.

A Reppitation of yesterday in the attended meeting Bro Ellis and President occupied the time

The Crystal Palace, London.
Friday April 26th 95.

Raining Hard All day went as pilate [pilot] to the Brothren and they took me to the Crystal Palace, returning about 730 they went to the Lyceam to hear Mr [Sir Henry] Irving and I came Home, and spent the evening.

Movie of Primrose Day from Picture of the Lord Beaconsfield Statue from . Picture of the Crystal Palace from

Wednesday, November 3, 2010

Henry Overson Missionary Journal: April 14-18, 1895

Petticoat Lane.

Sunday April 14th London. [Easter Sunday]

Arose quilt [quite] early and Bros Ogden Wood Winter and Jones and I went to have a look at Peticoat Lane from there went to hear the Rev [Joseph] Parker at the City temple [Holborn] and on our way back took in some interesting sights 230 [2:30] Attended Meeting Bros Jones Ogden and Wood occupied the time, after which we spent the time talking to a Spiritulist until 630 when Bro Winter and Pres Aveson gave their farewell address and two or three of us took a stroll down the City.

Royal Albert Hall with an inset showing the Albert Memorial. C. 1903.
Monday spent most of the day here at 36. the two Sisters Shortman and Cheney came in about 2 PM and we had a very nice time. in the evenin they with Bros Schoenfeld and others went to Madam Tusauds and Bros Wood Ogden Jones and I went down by the sights such as the Royal Tombs at Westminster. The Brompton Oratory Albert Hall and Memmorial and many others 1120 bid them Good Bye at St Pancras Station returning Home (Oh yes Herald Carter was with us)

Westminster Abbey.
Tuesday April 16th 95 London

Lovely weather spent most of the time at 36 however too, a short walk in the evening.

The British Museum.
Wednesday the 17 Still very fine About 10 A.M. accompanied Bro Scheonfeld to the Euston Stat[ion] and saw him off After which Herald Carter and I went to the British Museum. where we spent some time. After returning remained 36

Whitechapel in the 1890s.

Thursday April 18th 95.

After breakfast accompanied Eld Winter and Bro H. Carter to the Euston. saw them off. and Bro Wood and I took a walk out through Regents Park. passing the Zoo. went up on to Primrose Hill from which a splendid view of the Metropolis is had. thence back through the Park and on to 36. in the evening we went down Whitechapel in serch of a Book[.] Spent a couple of hours wandering round through the ^Dark^ Allies of that district seeing the Lights of Whitechapel [the Jack the Ripper murders happened a few years before this in Whitechapel]. Also saw the Crosby Hall built in 1466. the residence of "Edward [Richard] the third." in the evening attended meeting the time was occupied by Edrs Wood Dinwoody Overson and Pres Morris

An 1884 view of the interior of Crosby Hall, the residence of Richard III.

Photo of Petticoat Lane from Picture of Temple Church from Photo of Westminster Abbey from Photo of Whitechapel from Photo of Crosby Hall from